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Helsinki, National Library, A.ö.II.55 + A.ö.II.29. 'Graduale Ilmolense'


A Gradual


Finnish Literature Society (SKS)
Codices Fennici





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National Library
A.ö.II.55 + A.ö.II.29 (fols. [a-f])


Diocese of Turku

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Helsinki, National Library, A.ö.II.55 + A.ö.II.29. 'Graduale Ilmolense'
saec. XVI 2/3 (1540s?)
; II:
saec. XVI 2/3 (1550s?)
; III:
saec. XVI 2/4 (1530s)
; I–III:
diocese of Turku
A Gradual
I: A.ö.II.29, fols. [a–f] + A.ö.II.55, fols. 1–134.
A.ö.II.29, fols. [a], [e], [d], [c], [b], [f],
proprium de tempore
, from the end of the office for Christmas to the First Sunday after Epiphany.
|i nostri iubilate deo ...
... |i nostri.
Dominica infra octauas natalis domini officium
Dum medium silencium ...
... querebant animam pueri
In circumcisione domini officium
... super te orta est
. Vidimus stellam eius ...
Dominica infra octauas epyphanie domini officium
. ... omnis terra seruite domino
in leticia. Gloria ...
. Fili quid
fecisti n[obis;
|um et sana[bitur].
Fols. ,
proprium de tempore
, from the end of the office for the Saturday before Passion Sunday to the 23
Sunday after Trinity.
omnes qui diligitis eam ... ... nomini tuo domine.
Dominica in passione officium
. Iudica me deus et ... ... penitenciam a gente.
Dominica xxiii
. Dicit dominus ego cogito ... ... et fiet uobis.
Fols. ,
office for the feast of the dedication of a church
In die dedicacionis ecclesie
. Terribilis est locus ... ... aperietur, Alleluya, alleluia.
Fols. 61v–100r
proprium de sanctis
, from the vigil of St
(29.11.) to the feast of St
In uigilia andree
. Dominus secus mare galilee uidit ... ...
Sancti lini martyris officium
. Sacerdotes eius.
. Deus iusti, Alleluia.
. Amauit.
. Inueni.
. Domine quinque talenta.
Fols. ,
commune sanctorum
. The sanctoral follows the kalendar of the diocese of
, with most feasts of at least the grade
trium lectionum
(the winter feast of St
on fol. –v and his summer feast on fol. ). However, a number of feasts even of the highest grades are omitted (e.g.
dedicatio ecclesiae aboensis
visitatio Mariae
festum reliquiarum
4.12.) There are also a number of saints that either only have the grade
in the
kalendar or are completely foreign to it (
Edmundi regis
20.11. and
26.11.) Instead of testifying to an upgrading of these feasts, their inclusion, because they all occur in the last two weeks of November, more probably indicates an error or inconsistency of some sort in the copying of the book (
Malin 1925, 131
Sequitur in uigilia unius apostolic officium
... ... In communi unius uirginis ... ...
Item aliud
... exite obuiam christo domino.
Fols. –v,
votive masses
: for the holy spirit, for the Holy Cross, for the Holy Virgin in Advent.
De sancto spiritu officium. Spiritus domini
De sancta cruce officium
. Nos autem Christus ...
In commemoratione beate marie uirginis
In aduentu officium
. Rorate. Responsorium. Insole ... ... in se reconsilians yma summis.’
Fols. , originally only with empty red staves. Now fols. contain the beginning of a small
Lutheran graduale
in Swedish, which continues in part II.
Christus är födder aff en iunffru reen ... synen dedg och puro (without notation). Alle Christene frögda sig ... ... beuisas kan Alleluija. Christus är upstonden aff dödha ... i allan stadh, kyrieleison (without notation). [J]esus Christus han är wårdhen ... ... offuer dödhen Alleluija.
II: fols.
, a fragment of a
Lutheran graduale
fols. ,
Lutheran kyriale
, with the
in an interlinear Finnish translation (fol. 137r). According to
Schalin (1946, 10)
is not dependent on the Swedish of
Een liten sångbook
), but might be an older translation.
[H]erre fårbarma tigh offuer oss ... ... Gwdh wari tack och loff, Alleluija Alleluija Alleluija.
Fol. –v, in another hand of
saec. XVI
Michael Agricola
’s translation of the Pentecost sequence
Sancti Spiritus assit nobis gratia
Kurvinen 1929, 230
); defective at the end.
Pyhen hengen armo olcon ... O pyhe wirgottaya. Sine |’
III: fols. .
Ordinarium missae
and a
Fols. ,
ordinarium missae
Kyrieleyson, Christeleyson, Kyrieleyson. Gloria in excelsis ... ... Agnus dei qui tollis peccata mundi. Dona nobis pacem.
Fols. , , –r, –r, –r, –r, –r, –r, –r, –v;
Letabundus exultet fidelis ... ... sic erunt ordinum distincte. Superne martyris gaudia ... ... Tu agnum regem terre dominatorem moabitici de petra deserti ... perenni cremer igne inter oues locum presta ... ... mereamus collocari gloria. Amen.’
Fols. and have blank staves, while on only the lines for margins have been ruled. Notation is lacking on fols. (‘Congaudent angelorum chori ... supplici implorans maria’), (‘legis sacre peruersores ... gloriantur beatorum anime. Amen’), (‘
De sancto Michaele
. Laus erumpat ex affectu ... sic erunt ordinum distincte’), and –r, (‘ipsi dicens in apocalipsi ... de fonte deitatis satiemur plenius’).
Sequences for St
are on fols. .
On fol. –v the original hand (although it changes from Semitextualis to a Hybrida of
saec. XVI
on fol. ) added ‘A luporum faucibus et mortis ruina ... ad pastum bonum’. Perhaps the same (rather Cursive Hybrida) hand of
saec. XVI
also added, under the notation for sequences for Corpus Christi ‘Lauda sponsa genitricem ... ierarchia tecum communentium’ for
visitatio Mariae
; under those for St
‘Precursorem summi regis ... regnarum per secula, Amen’ for St
John the Baptist
; and under those for St
, ‘Odas in hac die letas ... transfer ad palacia’ for St
There are Lutheran changes to the words of
Ave preclara maris stella
on (‘Christus decus mundi rex regnorum’ for ‘Virgo decus mundi regina celi’)
On , a hand of
saec. XVII
has added, under ’[D]ies irae dies illa’ parts of the translation ‘Sanoi pietar domio päiwän wihan’ (after
Hemmingius Henrici
of Masku’s
Yxi Vähä Suomenkielinen Virsikirja
according to
Kurvinen 1929, 380
) (see scattered interlinear markings also on fols. , ).
194 fols.
19cm × 27,5cm (13-16cm × 18,5-24,5cm)
Modern foliation in pencil in the upper-right-hand corners of recto-sides.
The openings (on fols. 1–125) of part I have been numbered (from d I (–XII) to o V, which is the last marking visible, although the numbering has probably extended to o XI – fol. 131). The numbering does not reflect the structure of the manuscript, but indicates that there are 36 folia missing from its beginning. The remains of six of these (five whole leaves and the upper-inner corner of a sixth) are bound in at the beginning of Helsinki, National Library, Aö II 29, in the order b iiii, b viii, b vii, b vi, b v. These all come from the lost beginning of the book.
+ II
+ 2VI
+ IV
+ V
+ (IV–1)
+ 2V
+ VI
+ I
+ V
+ 1 + VI
+ (IV–1)
+ II
+ (V–1)
; V
+ (XI–1)
+ (VI–1)
+ II
+ 2 + III
In addition to the loss of folia from the beginning of the book, the final eight folia of the manuscript have been bound in reverse order and partly upside down: fols. 188–194 are upside down and read continuously from 194v to 188r. They are then followed by fol. 187, which is thus the final extant folio of pt. III.
The manuscript is a compilation made up of three parts: to part I (fols. 1–134) leaves (a–f) from
Helsinki, National Library, Aö.II.29
must be added. Part II consists of a sole quire (fols. 135–140) and part III of fols. 141–194. The manuscript is in fairly good condition, aside from some staining (especially pronounced on fol. 1 and fol. 141) and some water damage. Some of the folia have been repaired with paper (the leaves in Aö.II.29 especially heavily). The paper used by the other of the two scribes of part I (see below) is clearly of different quality from that used exclusively by the other scribe: the former is thicker, but it the ink has leached through it more easily than on the latter.
The proposed date is based on the watermarks in the manuscript (for preliminary observations see already
Keskiaho 2008b, 328 n. 31
). The oldest of the identified watermarks occur in part III (fols. 183 and 185; probably identical with 183, 185 (
PO 108213
: Tallinn
) and only there. All of the other identified watermarks in the manuscript (including part II) date from between
1534 and 1543
(the watermark on fols. [a], [d], [e], 63, 65, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88, 192, 190 and 189 is probably identical with
PO 125963
: Rügenwalde 1534; that on fols. 2, 4, 6, 8, 26, 31, 32, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38,41, 42, 131, 132, 141 144, 146, 148, 149, 151, 154, 156, 159, 160, 163, 164, 166, 168, 169, 172, 173, 177, 179 and 181 with
PO 1557379
: Hapsal 1534; that on fols. 45, 48, 50, 52, 53, 55, 57, 59, 61 and 95 with
PO 154549
: Braunschweig 1543; that on fols. 135, 136 and 138 with
PO 154802
: Ronneburg, 1536). Unfortunately it has not been possible to date the paper used exclusively by Scribe B in part I (fols. 9, 10, 13, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 96, 99, 100, 103, 104, 107, 109, 111, 113, 115 and 117, a
majuscule Y with a downturned leaf-motif in its curved stem
; cf.
PO 30126; 30060
; in addition the watermark on fols. 120, 123, 124, 126, 129 and 134, a
crown with a bow with pearls and crosses
, remains unidentified). Thus while it seems that part III may be slightly older than the folia copied by Scribe A in part I, it is not possible to ascertain whether Scribe B worked on part I before, together with, or after Scribe A.
text and notation in one column, on 7–9 lines
In pt. I there are two main hands writing Gothic Semitextualis and Hybrida (A, Semitextualis: fols. [a–f], , , , and –v; Hybrida: fols.
, , and ; and B, Hybrida: fols. , , ). A somewhat later hand has filled in or embellished passages written by Scribe A (see fols. , ). The Textualis of Scribe A is close to the script of the so-called Naantali-group of manuscripts (
Keskiaho 2008b, 327–330, 340
In pt. II there is one main hand, writing
saec. XVI
Cursive. The same hand copied hymns on the blank final pages of part I.
In pt. III there is one main hand, most probably the same as Scribe A of part I, writing Gothic Textualis (in the
ordinarium missae
) and Semitextualis. Probably the same scribe of
saec. XVI
entered additions on several folia in Hybrida.
I: Music has been copied in square notation on five red lines. II: Square notes on four black lines. III: Square notes on four lines (red on fols. , black on fols. ).
In pts. I and II red painted lombards for the beginnings of feasts (and at times shorter units within a feast), pen-drawn initials decorated with red and black diamond shapes and sawteeth and spikes. Pages copied by Scribe A have decoration in the style of the so-called Naantali-group of manuscripts (on this
Keskiaho 2008b, 333–335
), while the decoration of passages copied by Scribe B (and probably also decorated with him) are best characterized as an informal imitation of the style of the former. Also the most minor initials have been touched with red, and there is consistent rubrication throughout. Only in pt. III have the pen-drawn initials been left uncoloured and lombards and rubrics unexecuted on fols. , , and . Part II is completely monochromatic: there are spaces for the highest grade initials, but these have not been executed. There are crude Gothic pen-drawn initials for the beginnings of hymns, but these have not been coloured.
quarter-leather binding in very bad shape. The back cover is detached, and the binding is loose at places. When last bound, the leaves were aggressively trimmed.
Part III, probably copied in the
, may be the oldest of the constituent parts of the present manuscript; in any case it was probably bound separately from the other parts for some time, to judge by the dirt on its first folio. Part I was created probably by the same scribe as part III, and another scribe who either worked in concert with him or (more probably) worked before or after the first scribe (this would explain his use of paper from different stock, and why he does not more closely follow the style of Scribe B). If Scribe B worked before Scribe A, then his portions of the present manuscript are likely older than part III.
Given the stylistic affinities of Scribe A’s work with the so-called Naantali-group of manuscripts, he may have been an elderly member of the group that produced those manuscripts in the
late fifteenth century
, or (more probably) copied an exemplar produced by that group (for if the original group was in fact connected with the
Birgittine house of Naantali
, the omission in the present manuscript of the feast of St
would be very odd indeed). Given that Scribe A (and probably also Scribe B) worked after the beginning of the reformation, his work was highly conservative, both in content and in style.
Not necessarily long after part I was finished, Lutheran hymns were copied on its blank final leaves, at least one quire (probably at least two) attached to it, and a small gradual was copied on these leaves, forming part II of the present manuscript. The copy of
Michael Agricola
’s sequence translation in part II must postdate its publication in print in
, but the independence of the
ordinarium missae
Een liten sångbook
suggests that it was not copied much after the publication of the latter in
In the
nineteenth century
the two books (parts I+II and III) were found in
church and probably rebound at that time. They were both in bad shape: the last quire(s) of part II were missing, and much of the beginning of part I. The original missing leaves from the beginning of part one were eventually bound in another book from
, perhaps because they had at some point been placed inside it for preservation. At this stage part III, which was also probably in bad shape, to judge by the fact that its last quire has been bound upside down, was united with parts I and II to form the present manuscript.
Jesse Keskiaho (2005a), ‘Bortom fragmenten: Handskriftsproduktion och boklig kultur i det medeltida Åbo stift’,
Historisk Tidskrift för Finland
93 (2008), 209–252, at 238.
Jesse Keskiaho (2005b), ‘En grupp handskrifter fån slutet av 1400-talet – från Nådendals scriptorium?’,
Historisk Tidskrift för Finland
93 (2008), 318–350.
Aarno Malin,
Der Heiligenkalender Finnlands. Seine Zusammnesetzung und Entwicklung
(Suomen kirkkohistoriallisen seuran toimituksia 20), Helsingfors 1925, 129–130.
Olav D. Schalin,
Kulthistoriska studier till belysande av reformationens genomförande i Finland
, I, Herlsingfors 1946, 9–10.
Ilkka Taitto,
Documenta Gregoriana. Latinalaisen kirkkolaulun lähteitä Suomessa
, Helsinki 1992, 351–354.
Jesse Keskiaho
Finnish Literature Society (SKS)
Codices Fennici
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