Turku, Provincial Archives of Turku, Turku Archdiocese Cathedral Chapter, Gummerus-collection, I:4. Gummerus-antifonario


Antiphonarium, a composite of several


Finnish Literature Society (SKS)
Codices Fennici


Pts. II-III: Saec. XV 2/3; Pts. I and IV: Saec. XV 2/2


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Provincial Archives of Turku
Turku Archdiocese Cathedral Chapter
Gummerus-collection, I:4



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Turku, Provincial Archives of Turku, Turku Archdiocese Cathedral Chapter, Gummerus-collection, I:4. Gummerus-antifonario
saec. XV 2/3
?); I and IV:
saec. XV
diocese of Turku
, a composite of several manuscripts written for use in the church province of
diocese of Turku
On fols. there are (as in
Turku, Provincial Archives of Turku, Turku Archdiocese Cathedral Chapter, Gummerus-collection, I.3
) responsories for Holy Week which refer to ‘brothers’ (
) alternating with the ‘choir’ (
), indicating that their exemplar followed regular rather than secular liturgy.
Part III contains the offices for St
(fols. ) and
Helen of Skövde
(); part I contains the office for St
(fols. ). Thus, at least these parts were copied for use somewhere in the church province of Uppsala. A closer localization does not appear possible, as the parts of the sanctorale that could have contained either of the feasts of St
, for instance, are missing. It is, however, likely that all of the parts were copied for use in the
diocese of Turku
I: fols. 1–6.
Only the upper left-hand corner of fol. 1 survives; the only text legible is on the recto-side, ‘[alle]luya [ ... ] all[leluya]’
Fols. ,
proprium de sanctis
, from the feast of the discovery of the Holy Cross (defective) to the feast of St Erik.
|et dominum. Allelya, a, a, Allelelya, salue sancta crux ... ... pupillo tu eris adiutor.
Pt. II: fols. 7–18.
Fols. ,
proprium de sanctis
, from the feast of St
John the Baptist
to the feast of SS
Peter and Paul
S. Iohannis Baptiste
saec. XVI
). Ingresso Zacharie templum domini ... non sunt separati. Euouae. (in a later hand:) et agnum[?].
Fol. originally blank, now with Marian prayers.
Deus qui beate marie virginis concepcionem angelico vaticinio ... frequentatione veneramur. Per [dominum nostrum ... ] Concede quesumus piissime deus nos beatissime marie ... deuotione veneramur. Per. Deus omnipotens deus verus nobis beate dei genetricis ... sollempnitate letificas. Per. Maria virgo regia ex stirpe ... Gloria tibi domine. Maria mater domini ... Gloria tibi domine. (In another hand:) Gloriamus [?] omnes ... Ave maria gratia plena ... in hora mortis.
Pt. III: fols. 19–117.
Fols. ,
proprium de sanctis
(mostly), from the feast of
Mary Magdalene
to the feast of St
; then offices for St
Helen of Skövde
, the Annunciation, the Ascension, and the Conception of the Virgin.
Die Mariae Magdalene
(in a hand of
saec. XVI
). Recumbente ihesu in domo pharisei ... ... ... salute omniumque populorum.
Hystoria de sancto Olauo
(in the upper margin; another title here in the outer margin:
de sancto olauo
). Sancte martir domini Olaue ... ... ad pacem qui exsuperat omnem sensum. D
e sancta Elena
. [S]alue decus patrie ... ... uiuamus eterna. sic septies[?]
Die anuntiationis Mariae
(in a later hand). Sacerdos noe gracie ... ... uerusque sol detegitur. Magnificat. Euouae.
Jn uigilia ascensionis ad uesperas
(in a later hand).
Die Ascensionis Christi
(in a still later hand). Ascendens Christus in altum ... ... spiritum ueritatis, Alleluia, Magnificat, Euouae.
Sequentia de concepcione beate Marie uirginis
. Dies festa celebretur ... ... partu salutari tua sistit gratia. Amen.
Fols. ,
proprium de sanctis
(mostly), office for St
, then from the feast of St
(imperf.) to All Saints, the feast of St
(imperf.), and from the feast of St
(imperf.) to the feast of St
(imperf.), Christmas (imperf.), the feast of St
(imperf.), the feast of St
John the Evangelist
, and the feast of the Holy Innocents (imperf.).
[L]etare mater nostra iherusalem ... de reliqua. Magnificat. Euouae.
De sancto laurencio
. Laurencius bonum opus ... Quo pr[gredieris sine] filio pater | |em probasti experire ... ... laudant angeli cum cherubim. | miserere quos deseruis ...
Die sancti Martini
(in a later hand) [H]ic est martinus electus dei ... sepulchri ymnis canora celes| tui sancto speruit. virgo flagellatur ... ... et andream et uocauit | |batur ut crucifigerent eum ... beati qui non uiderunt et crediredunt. Alleluya. Benedictus. Euouae.
Hystoria de natiuitate ihesu Christo
(erased or worn, replaced, saec. XVI–XVII:)
Historia in die Nativitatis
. | tamquam sponsum de thalamo suo ... hominibus bone uoluntatis. (Added with notes:) Hodie. | suo dedit primus beatus uir ... ... et introiuit beatus homo. | Jhesu recumbens ewangelii ... ... stolaque glorie induxit eum. Ambulabunt mecum in albis ... ... et pluet super |
Pt. IV: fols. 118–143.
Fols. ,
proprium de sanctis
, office for the feast of the Holy Innocents (continued from pt. III).
pectoris laqueas ignem ... ... dicunt semper Gloria tibi domine. Magnificat. Euouae.
Fols. , Holy Week office of the Cross, and offices for Holy Saturday, Pentecost and
conceptio Mariae
[C]ollegerunt pontifices et farisei ... ... uesperas ut in anthiphonario habetur.
Sabbato sancte pasche ad uesperas super psalmos antiphona
. Alleluya. Alleluya. laudate dominum ... ... nobiscum dicentes. Quod. In uigilia pentecoste ad uesperas super psalmos. Veni sancte spiritus reple ... linguarum cunctarum. [G]aude mater ecclesia ... ... qui fuit yesse|
Pt. V: fols. 144–192.
Fols. ,
proprium de tempore
, selection of offices from the first Sunday in Lent to the Saturday before Easter, including responsories for Holy Week.
(a later (erroneous) addition) ecce nunc tempus acceptabile ... ... qui transitis per uiam.
Occasional corrections and amplifications, e.g. on fol. , in a hand of
saec. XVI
, variant verses added to the hymn
Media vita in morte sumus
: ‘2. Noli claudere aures ... ne tradas nos’. There are erroneous later rubrics, written in versals in what resembles a red pencil or crayon, on fols. , and : they indicate that the texts are for Sundays in Advent, while in fact they are for Sundays in Lent.
192 folios.
14,5cm × 21cm
Modern foliation in pencil in the upper right-hand corners of recto-sides (the foliation includes the surviving corner of the originally third folio of the book).
; (VII–2)
; 2VI
+ IV
+ (IV–1)
+ 2IV
+ (IV–4)
+ (IV–4)
+ (IV–2)
+ (IV–2)
+ IV
; II
+ IV
+ (X–6)
; 3VI
+ (VII–1)
Pt. III was given catchwords; they are extant on fols. 57v, 65v, 81v, 89v and 117v.
The book is a collection of distinct parts, some of which may be fragments of once more extensive manuscripts. The first folio of pt. II (fol. 8r), is dirty in a way to show it was once an outside leaf (suggesting that the entire quire might have been loose and unbound for some time before coming into its present context).
After fol. 117 a binio-quire has been added and a younger hand completed the office for the Holy Innocents; fols. 118–121 should be seen as distinct from pt. III and belonging to pt. IV, where the same hand is active (see e.g. fol. 129v); pt. IV is otherwise primarily distinguished through its irregular structure in comparison with pt. III. Pt. V is written by different hands to those of the other parts, and a semblance of regular structure resumes.
The manuscript is in rather poor condition: most of the leaves are dirty, torn in one way or another, and occasionally water damaged. Pt. I lacks leaves at the beginning; of fol. 1, only the upper left-hand corner remains; in addition, pts. III and IV are defective, with lacunae between fols. 50 and 51, 73 and 74, 77 and 78, 80 and 81, 97 and 98, 103 and 104, 109 and 110, and 143 and 144. Leaves have occasionally been repaired, as in pt. III fols. 98 and 99, which were torn and were repaired and rewritten in the 16th century; and fols. 75r and 78v, which have been patched using another saec. XV(?) paper manuscript. At the end of the book there are the stubs from five folia.
I. Milveden (1972, 22 n. 78)
, based on an examination of the watermarks, dated what he took to be the manuscript’s oldest part, which includes the textual portion in which he was interested (fols. ), to the
. But unfortunately he did not specify the evidence or develop the argument, and it has not been possible to confirm or deny his findings for the present description.
Fols. : text and notation on nine lines; fols. : text and notation on eight lines; fols. : text and notation on eight to ten lines; fols. : text and notation on seven to eight lines; fols. : text and notation on eight to nine lines; fols. 122r–143v: 11 × 16, text and notation on seven lines; fols. : text and notation on six to nine lines; ruled in ink.
Several different hands of
saec. XV
(see already the first 33 folia: hand I, fols. ; II, ; III, ; IV, , ; and V, ) writing varieties of Gothic Cursive and Hybrida (fols. ).
Based on the appearance of the script, it would seem possible that pts. I and V are later than the other parts, and that pt. II might be the oldest, with pts. III and IV following it in that order.
Decadent square notation on four black lines.
Varies. Fols. 1–: simple monochromatic pen-drawn Gothic versals; fols. : highest-grade initials are lombards drawn in orangey red, the same crayon-like colour used for rubrication in this section, and for touching with colour the lower-grade initials, which are simple, slightly larger cursive letters; fols. : only lower-grade initials, which are pen-drawn and monochromatic, either slightly larger cursive letters or very small lombards; fols. : pen-drawn monochromatic Gothic versals, some with decorative faces, others decorated with diamond shapes and triangular extrusions, touched with red on fols. , , and , where there are also pen-drawn red lombards as higher-grade initials; fols. , pen-drawn monochromatic initials both for the beginnings of sections and for sentences; mostly Gothic versals, occasionally lombards (e.g. fols. 123, , ), the Gothic versals are occasionally decorated with faces (fols. ); fols. –192: monochromatic pen-drawn Gothic versals decorated with diamond shapes, triangular extrusions etc.
Rubrication is only occasional, esp. in parts III–V, where many of the rubrics have been supplied only later.
A full-leather binding of
saec. XV–XVI
, dark brown leather on boards with raised bands. The volume has been closed with a single clasp, which has gone missing. The leather is severely worn.
Pastedowns are leaves from an
saec. XIV3/3–XV1/3
(written area 14 × 21, the height of a stave 14mm; the front pastedown, with one half of a quire signature (‘b’): ‘***
. A[diuua] nos deus salutaris ...
. Exaltabo te domine quoniam ... ’, the back pastedown, with a half of a quire signature (‘ix’): ‘mira[ ... ]bile in oculis nost[ris] ...
. Dominus [regna]uit decorem ...
... . parata sedes tua deus ...
Ad summam missam officium
. Puer natus est no[bis]’); the latter fragment has the beginning of the office for Christmas Day.
A composite manuscript made of distinct parts, some of which may be fragments of more extensive original manuscripts, copied in the
fifteenth century
, quite possibly in the
diocese of Turku
, and apparently bound as the present volume in the middle ages.
Inside the front cover, the shelfmark, in pencil, ‘G.4’.
The insides of both the back and the front covers carry several non-informative pen-trials in various cursive hands of
saec. XV–XVI
The book was found in the
early twentieth century
in the
archives of Turku Cathedral Chapter
, which it might have entered
, after the chapter’s request that parishes send in older written materials for examination. These materials were in some cases returned to the parishes (this happened to the books from Tammela now in the library of Åbo Akademi), but some at least remained and survived the great fire that destroyed much of the city in 1827 (
Schalin 1946, 6 n. 2
, cites the circulars of the chapter, no. 237 of 5 November 1828, and no. 264 of 20 June 1833, which indicate that several manuscripts that had been sent to Turku as requested had not been collected and had become disordered in the fire, and were now kept in the archbishop’s household).
J. Gummerus, ‘Eräs kirjalöytö Turun tuomiokapitulin arkistosta’,
Suomen kirkkohistoriallisen seuran pöytäkirjat 10
(1910), 81–123, here 92–96.
I. Milveden, ‘Neue Funde zur Brynolphus-Kritik’,
Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning 54
(1972), 5–51.
I. Taitto,
Documenta Gregoriana. Latinalaisen kirkkolaulun lähteitä Suomessa
, Helsinki 1992, 373–376.
Jesse Keskiaho
Finnish Literature Society (SKS)
Codices Fennici
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